Environment ministry assures India will revise its air quality standards – Gaonconnection | Your Connection with Rural India – Gaon Connection English

In the wake of the World Health Organization (WHO) revising its permissible levels for air pollutants on September 22, a senior official from the Union Environment Ministry stated in a seminar that the process to revise India’s current air pollution guidelines is underway. 

 “The Central Pollution Control Board is already working with NEERI (National Environmental Engineering Research Institute) on revising the AQ (air quality) standards. They will be coming with the new standards soon,” Sudheer Chintalapati, Joint Director, Ministry of Environment Forests and Climate Change stated in the seminar organised by an advocacy group named Climate Trends in New Delhi’s India Habitat Centre on October 12.

Explained: Why WHO revised guidelines for air quality — its implications for India

“The environment ministry launched the National Clean Air Programme in 2019 to reduce pollution by 25 to 30%. During the launch of the programme itself, the ministry had accepted that there is a need to revisit the air quality standards,” Chintalapati added.

Last month, WHO revised the permissible limits for five major pollutants — particulate matter (PM), ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) sulfur dioxide (SO2) and carbon monoxide (CO). Last time such a revision was announced was in 2005. 

Also Read: Here’s what a study found while probing the link between air pollution and COVID19 in India

While announcing the new guidelines, WHO Director-General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus had urged the countries around the globe to revise their air quality standards downwards.

The air has suspended particulate matter (PM) of different sizes and many of these are a complex mixture of dust, pollen, soot and smoke and they are hazardous.

“WHO’s new Air Quality Guidelines are an evidence-based and practical tool for improving the quality of the air on which all life depends. I urge all countries and all those fighting to protect our environment to put them to use to reduce suffering and save lives,” the WHO chief had said in the event. 

Also Read: 2.45 million people in India died due to air pollution from burning of fossil fuels in 2018: Harvard study

WHO’s revised guidelines have reduced the prescribed tolerance for annual PM 2.5 average at 5 ug/m3, reducing it from 2005 limits set at 10 ug/m3. 

Also, the PM10 annual average is now set at 15 ug/m3 in comparison to the earlier acceptable limit of 20 ug/m3. NO2 levels, which are a direct result of vehicular emissions, have been revised to 10 ug/m3, in comparison to 40 ug/m3 in the earlier set of guidelines released in 2005. 

What is ‘PM’ in the air?

The air has suspended particulate matter (PM) of different sizes and many of these are a complex mixture of dust, pollen, soot and smoke and they are hazardous. Of this, PM 2.5 is the smaller kind, with a diameter not more than 2.5 micrometers (fine particles). PM2.5 is considered to have an adverse health impact as it can stay in the air for days or weeks, and is small enough to invade the lung airways.

According to Global Strategic Communications Council, New Delhi annual PM2.5 trends in 2020 was 16.8 times more than WHO’s revised air quality guidelines of 5 ug/m3, while Mumbai’s exceeded eight-fold, Kolkata 9.4, Chennai 5.4, Hyderabad seven fold and Ahmedabad exceeded 9.8 fold. 

Air pollution claims over 10 lakh lives every year and yet we tend to ignore it – Firstpost

In India, environmental impact contributes to 30 percent of the deaths, the reasons being infectious, parasitic, neonatal and nutritional issues, non-communicable diseases and injuries

Morning haze envelops the skyline on the outskirts of New Delhi on 16 October, 2020. AP

Of late, fewer COVID-19 cases have been recorded in India and this is the right time to focus on health hazards of ambient air pollution in India. This is all the more pertinent given the fact that winters are about to set in and the menace of stubble burning is once again threatening to choke our cities.

According to the recent World Air Quality Report (WAQR) 2020, India is the third most polluted country in the world in the PM2.5 ranking. Though India has shown slight improvement compared to last year, 22 of the world’s 30 worst regional cities for air pollution are still in India. Ghaziabad is the most polluted regional city in the world. Fourteen cities of India also figure in the list of the world’s 15 most polluted regional cities. New Delhi is also the most polluted capital city in the world. Transportation, electricity generation, biomass burning for cooking, industry, waste burning, construction, and episodic agricultural burning are highlighted in the report as the major sources of India’s air pollution.

Recent policy developments

The key measures recently implemented by the Government of India for controlling air pollution inter alia include setting up of a high-level task force for the management of air pollution in Delhi, Comprehensive Air Plan for Delhi, implementation of city-specific plans in 122 non-attainment cities and National Clean Air Programme. Though these have shown slight improvement in the condition, the long-term requirement is a comprehensive strategy for tackling air pollution in India.

Air pollution and public health

In India, environmental impact contributes to 30 percent of the deaths, the reasons being infectious, parasitic, neonatal and nutritional issues, non-communicable diseases and injuries. As per studies by the World Health Organisation (WHO) and public health experts globally, ambient air pollution is one of the major components of the environment’s impact on public health. The WHO’s 2016 median year data shows that the absolute number of ambient air pollution attributable deaths in India is the second-highest in the World, next to China.

Male population deaths are more when compared to the female population in India, the reason being more exposure of the former to the outdoor air pollution.

The WHO has estimated that the health impact of air pollution costs more than 4 percent of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in the 15 countries that emit the most greenhouse gas emissions. The WHO’s 2016 median year data also reveals that ambient air pollution attributable death rate in India is 82 per 1 lakh population and the absolute number of ambient air pollution attributable death is 10,87,000. The position of India in this regard is 12th in the list of WHO member countries. If we analyse the burden of diseases, ambient air pollution attributable to disability-adjusted life year (DALYs) is 2,547 per 1 lakh for both sexes — which is 2,850 and 2,221 for males and females, respectively. The position of India is ninth in this regard, compared to 12th in the case of ambient air pollution attributable deaths.

Diseases caused by air pollution

India’s ambient air pollution attributable deaths are due to Ischaemic heart disease, followed by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lower respiratory infections, Stroke and Trachea, bronchus, lung cancers (Source: WHO). The situation may be more severe in the case of children born and brought up in polluted cities like Delhi. Also, children absorb more pollutants, as they breathe more rapidly than adults, resulting in stunted growth of their brains. Thus air pollution has a severe adverse impact on the growth of children. In the case of Ischaemic heart disease, the death rate is more severe in the case of males (37) than females (22) per 100,000 population.

Feasible policy options

Considering the serious consequences of air pollution in India, we need to adopt a comprehensive policy approach to get the best results. The best practices adopted successfully across the world need to be synchronised to get the desired results in the Indian context. The feasible policy options include: (a) cities in India to be developed into “New Transit Cities”; (b) environmental fiscal reforms in transport, energy and waste generation sectors; (c) strict enforcement of environmental regulations; (d) promoting and adopting environment-friendly technologies and products; and (e) creating environmental awareness. The implementation of these measures, with strict enforcement by the respective state governments, may definitely change the face of the Indian economy, resulting in sustainable development.

The writer is an Indian Economic Service (2010) officer serving as Deputy Secretary in the Ministry of Finance. Views expressed are personal.

Swacch Bharat Mission to continue till 2025-26 – Sify

New Delhi, Oct 13 (IANS) The nationwide cleanliness drive under Swacch Bharat Mission – with a focus on sustainability – will continue till 2025-26, the Union Cabinet has decided.

“The mission will focus on sustainability of Open Defecation Free (ODF) outcomes, achieving scientific processing of Solid Waste in all cities, and managing Wastewater in cities with less than 1 lakh population in Census 2011 [cities not covered under Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT)] under which all cities will be made to achieve at least 3-star garbage free certification,” said a statement on Tuesday.

Union Cabinet, chaired by Prime Minister Narendra Modi approved the decision.

A financial outlay of Rs 1,41,600 crore has been finalized for SBM-U 2.0, including central share of Rs 36,465 for the period 2021-22 to 2025-26 which is over 2.5 times the financial outlay of Rs 62,009 crores in the last phase of the Mission, the statement added.

The implementation of the Mission components will be done in a structured and time-bound manner, with thorough gap analysis of required infrastructure, detailed 5-year action plans, and annual action plans with timelines.

“The Mission will focus on ensuring complete access to sanitation facilities to serve additional population migrating from rural to urban areas in search of employment and better opportunities over the next five years. This will be done through the construction of over 3.5 lakh individual, community and public toilets,” the official communique mentioned under ‘sustainable sanitation’.

The second point is to ensure complete liquid waste management in cities in less than 1 lakh population – a new component introduced under the mission will ensure that systems and processes are set up in every city so that all wastewater is safely contained, collected, transported and treated and no wastewater pollutes our water bodies.

Under sustainble solid waste management: 100 per cent source segregation of waste along with functional Material Recovery Facilities (MRFs) in every city, with a focus on phasing out single use plastic.

“Setting up of construction and demolition (C&D) waste processing facilities and deployment of mechanical sweepers in National Clean Air Programme (NCAP) cities and in cities with more than five lakh population,” the release mentioned, adding, “Remediation of all legacy dumpsites, so that 14,000 acres of locked up land lying under 15 crore tonnes of legacy waste are freed up.”

–IANS

rdk/pgh

'Swachh Bharat Mission' to continue till 2025-26 – India TV

Image Source : PTI/ REPRESENTATIONAL (FILE).

Swachh Bharat Mission to continue till 2025-26. 

The nationwide cleanliness drive under ‘Swachh Bharat Mission’- with a focus on sustainability- will continue till 2025-26, the Union Cabinet has decided.

“The mission will focus on sustainability of Open Defecation Free (ODF) outcomes, achieving scientific processing of Solid Waste in all cities, and managing Wastewater in cities with less than 1 lakh population in Census 2011 [cities not covered under Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT)] under which all cities will be made to achieve at least 3-star garbage free certification,” said a statement on Tuesday.

Union Cabinet, chaired by Prime Minister Narendra Modi approved the decision.

A financial outlay of Rs 1,41,600 crore has been finalized for SBM-U 2.0, including central share of Rs 36,465 for the period 2021-22 to 2025-26 which is over 2.5 times the financial outlay of Rs 62,009 crores in the last phase of the Mission, the statement added.

The implementation of the Mission components will be done in a structured and time-bound manner, with a thorough gap analysis of required infrastructure, detailed 5-year action plans, and annual action plans with timelines.

“The Mission will focus on ensuring complete access to sanitation facilities to serve additional population migrating from rural to urban areas in search of employment and better opportunities over the next five years. This will be done through the construction of over 3.5 lakh individual, community and public toilets,” the official communique mentioned under ‘sustainable sanitation’.

The second point is to ensure complete liquid waste management in cities in less than 1 lakh population – a new component introduced under the mission will ensure that systems and processes are set up in every city so that all wastewater is safely contained, collected, transported and treated and no wastewater pollutes our water bodies.

Under sustainble solid waste management: 100 per cent source segregation of waste along with functional Material Recovery Facilities (MRFs) in every city, with a focus on phasing out single-use plastic.

“Setting up of construction and demolition (C&D) waste processing facilities and deployment of mechanical sweepers in National Clean Air Programme (NCAP) cities and in cities with more than five lakh population,” the release mentioned, adding, “Remediation of all legacy dumpsites, so that 14,000 acres of locked up land lying under 15 crore tonnes of legacy waste are freed up.”

 

Latest India News

Cabinet approves continuation of Swachh Bharat mission, with an outlay of ₹1.41 lakh crore – Mint

The union cabinet on Tuesday approved the continuation of Swachh Bharat Mission (Urban) till 2025-26 for sustainable outcomes. The government will spend around 1,41,600 crore for the mission, which is 2.5 times more than the first phase of the mission.

The second phase of Swachh Bharat is aimed at elimination of open defecation, including fecal sludge management in all cities with less than 1 lakh population, said a release from the government.

The implementation of the mission components will be done in a structured and time-bound manner, with thorough gap analysis of required infrastructure, detailed 5-year action plans, and annual action plans with timelines.

The scheme will focus on two key areas:

Sustainable Sanitation:

Ensuring complete access to sanitation facilities to serve additional population migrating from rural to urban areas in search of employment and better opportunities over the next 5 years. This will be done through the construction of over 3.5 lakhs individual, community and public toilets.

Complete liquid waste management in cities in less than 1 lakh population – a new component introduced under SBM-Urban 2.0 will ensure that systems and processes are set up in every city so that all wastewater is safely contained, collected, transported and treated and no wastewater pollutes our water bodies.

Sustainable Solid Waste Management:

100% source segregation of waste along with functional material recovery facilities (MRFs) in every city, with a focus on phasing out single use plastic

Setting up of construction & demolition (C&D) waste processing facilities and deployment of mechanical sweepers in National Clean Air Programme (NCAP) cities and in cities with more than 5 lakh population.

Remediation of all legacy dumpsites, so that 14,000 acres of locked up land lying under 15 crore tonnes of legacy waste are freed up.

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Karnataka: Rule for diesel generator sets troubles firms amid power woes – Times of India

BENGALURU: A new rule requiring industries to upgrade their diesel generator (DG) sets is causing problems for companies, which are grappling with challenges arising from soaring fuel prices and a coal-linked power crisis.
The high cost of diesel is forcing them to use DG sets more often, but the new rule, prompted by environmental concerns, is complicating the situation. Industry associations warn that this may potentially impact economic recovery, slowing it down.
After an order by the National Green Tribunal (NGT), the Karnataka State Pollution Control Board (KSPCB) issued a circular in September, saying all DG sets of 125 KVA capacity and above should be retrofitted with an emission control device. The measure, formulated under the National Clean Air programme, seeks to reduce pollution caused by DG sets and improve their fuel efficiency.
“The objective is appreciable, but the timing of its implementation is wrong and it impedes economic recovery. The rule will lead to additional costs for industries and officials may misuse it to harass units. We are getting reports of sites being inspected,” said S Sampathraman, chairman, All-India Manufacturers’ Organisation.
Sampathraman believes the new rule is not required as CPCB 4+ will anyway come into force next year and all DG sets will have to be upgraded to meet the National Clean Air standards. CPCB 4+ stands for Central Pollution Control Board 4 plus emission norms.
He added that there were no approved vendors who could supply the equipment needed to upgrade DG sets and that available products were of dubious origin and cost Rs 5 lakh to Rs 10 lakh.
Representatives of companies like Cummins India Ltd and Eicher have already written to authorities. “The NGT’s order states that the retrofitment device shall be type approved by labs recognised by CPCB, but no device has been approved by any of the five labs and there is no certification procedure specified,” states the letter sent by Cummins India Ltd.
Industries claim that the circular violates existing emission norms, under which conversion or retrofitting of DG sets is not permitted.
“Instead of enforcing this unnecessary rule, the government should focus on providing uninterrupted power supply so that industries don’t have to rely on DG sets. There are power cuts at least four times a day in industrial areas. When such is the case, the government should look for ways to reduce the diesel price,” said Perikal Sundar, president, Federation of Karnataka Chambers and Commerce. He added that Tamil Nadu had withdrawn a similar circular.
Officials said they were aware of the issue and suggested that companies should raise the matter in the Kaigarika Adalat (Industry Adalat) on Tuesday. The adalat will be held as part of the two-day entrepreneur workshop organised by the industries department.
“Let industrialists come to us with their grievances. We will take it up with the pollution control board,” said industry commissioner Gunjan Krishna. Syed Khaja, a senior environmental officer at KSPCB, said the board was only implementing the NGT’s order and it cannot take back the circular. “Industrialist can move the tribunal,” he added.

Measures to improve Byrnihat air quality in the offing – The Shillong Times

SHILLONG, Oct 9: The Meghalaya State Pollution Control Board (MSPCB) will soon introduce a programme to better the air quality in Byrnihat, which is home to many industrial units.
Informing this, an official at the State Pollution Control Board informed that the programme, headed by the Ri Bhoi District Administration, is being worked out under Centre’s National Clean Air Programme.
The programme, which will involve stakeholders from different government departments, administration and local communities, will examine the source(s) of emission from vehicles and industrial units, and will devise modalities to tackle them.
In addition to this, the idea of introducing e-rickshaws in the area will also be worked out with the Transport department, it was informed.
Industrial units will also be asked to implement a methodology where the government will be able to keep a tab on the emission rate on a real-time basis.

An eight-point urban agenda for pollution control in India – Business Standard

Urban areas generate 70 percent of carbon emission leading to pollution (caused by displacement of oxygen in the air) and associated impact on breathing, increase in the air pollutants, preventing earth from night time cooling (greenhouse effects – warming of ocean waters and drop in its ability to absorb carbon emission). Urban pollution has a multiplier effect on quality of life, productivity and human health with overwhelming share of seven million lives lost globally per annum. In the rapidly urbanizing world (4.5 billion currently to 6.25 billion in 2050), the carbon emission, accompanied by pollution from transport, construction, energy and waste management sectors is likely to increase further unless drastic actions are taken by multiple stakeholders in a well-designed manner.

WHO also has recently revised norms for ambient air quality (AAQ) guidelines of PM2.5 (5 mg per cubic metre from 10 pcm ) and annual mean of PM 2.10 (15 mg pcm from 20) just before 26th session of UN Conference of Parties (COP 26) to be held in November 2021 which will certainly deliberate on new standards and global agenda towards Race to Zero (RTZ) Carbon 2050.

India is also undergoing a transition from semi-urban (25%+) to urban majority society as part of structural transformation with surplus labour from agriculture sector with only 14% GDP for nearly half of workforce and 65 percent population. Pollution and associated impact in urban areas with 60-70 % carbon emission and high levels of PM2.5 and 10 is already alarming. 14 out of 20 most polluted cities in the world are in India. (Delhi’s PM2.5 is 17 times the safe limit along with Kolkata 9.4, Hyderabad 7 and Chennai 5.4 etc.). A large part of loss of lives due to pollution being 1.7(ICMR etc.2019) to 2.5 (Harward 2021) million per annum in India is occurring in urban areas. Delhi, Mumbai along with a large number of people suffering from respiratory diseases. Chennai, Bengaluru, Hyderabad and Lucknow lost nearly 120000 lives due to air pollution in 2020. Further , Delhi recorded highest per capita economic loss (2019) being 13% of city GDP accompanied by 14% for Lucknow, 9% for Mumbai, 8% for Hyderabad and 6.8% each for Bengaluru and Chennai.

Last couple of years in urban India has witnessed a particular attention towards AAQ with a multipronged strategy on dedicated allocation, focus of level schemes and state/city level actions.

Dedicated allocation covers Rs 38,196 crore for 2021-26 under XV Finance Commission (FC) given to 44 Urban Agglomerations (covering 1115 towns) for AAQ and water and solid waste management (SWM) in a ratio of 32 and 68 % respectively. These are linked to each other. Further, nearly Rs 50,000 crore (for remaining 3000 + towns) is also dedicated to water and SWM in a ratio of 50% each. In addition a sum of Rs 24,000 crore is also allocated for urban health and wellness centres. Further Rs 8000 crores are allocated for Incubation of eight towns in a competitive manner among states. It will give push to pollution control. Swachh Bharat Mission 02 and Amrut 02 with allocation of Rs 4.3 trillion (two point five time more than phase 1) were launched on October 1, 2021 to give focus on water availability to all and treatment of sewage to create water plus cities.

The specific programmes/scheme include (a) Clean Air Programme (2019) covering 132 cities ,(b) Climate Smart City Assessment Framework (CSCAF) to award cities on 28 indicators under five areas (i) urban planning, (ii)green cover/biodiversity, (iii)energy efficient green buildings; (iv)mobility and air quality and (v) water and waste management (126 cities were assessed as part of smart cities mission(SCM) under CSCAF out of which Ahmedabad ,Pune, Indore, etc. were adjudged top performers) and (c))Streets for People Challenge under SCM (reimaging clean environment friendly public spaces for economic regeneration, safety and mobility) among 113 cities participating cities States/ city level initiatives cover (i) application of UN led RTZ campaign (2050) in 43 major towns in Maharashtra,(ii) Gujarat and Bihar are also planning RTZ, (iii) Drive to eliminate End of Use Life Vehicles (ELVs) in Delhi (which has four million ELVs) for scrapping (25 September 2021) with identification of seven partners, (iv) Scientific processing of construction and demolition (c&d) waste (Ahmedabad, Delhi ,Bengaluru etc.), (v) Commission for AQM in NCR(Capital Region) has issued specific guidelines to strictly follow c&d waste management rules and upload the compliance on a portal being created in NCR(October 2021), (vi) Creation of SPV for SWM (Bengaluru) to expedite decentralised waste management (vii) specific sites for parking commercial vehicles to make space on roads(MCD-South), (viii) Innovation officer to adapt lake revival, water harvesting (Chennai) and (ix) Blue green policy for mobility and waste management (Delhi master plan 2041).

These initiatives alone are not enough without a national urban agenda on pollution control to cover (i) Preparation of state urban transport policy to eliminate ELVs, promotion of fuel free transport, walking and cycling space, rationalise and restrict parking, promotion of Bharat stage 6 vehicles/ better energy (as NCTD and Maharashtra) (ii) develop and rejuvenate water bodies, (iii) make environment friendly process for building construction and C&D waste (iv) minimise garbage going to dumping sites through reduce, recycling and reuse with a circular economy, (v) enforce plantation drive and census of trees, (vi) wider application of water harvesting (vi) prepare or revise master Plans for blue -green development (vii) Initiate awards on best practices on RTZ 2050 and (viii) Take up capacity building of ULBs on above actions through training (virtual, Hybrid, face to face), technical assistance and field visits.

The author is Professor, urban management, Indian Institute of Public Administration, New Delhi

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Have plan to cut air pollution: GPCB to HC – Times of India

Ahmedabad: The Gujarat Pollution Control Board (GPCB) on Friday informed the Gujarat high court that it has a plan approved by the central authority to curb air pollution, but it may yield results only by 2025-26.
The board said so after admitting that air quality in various places in Gujarat is very poor. It said the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) has placed four cities —Ahmedabad, Surat, Vadodara, and Rajkot — in the list of 102 cities of the country marked as “non-attainment cities” under National Clean Air Programme. It also submitted that under the Comprehensive Environmental Pollution Index (CEPI), the CPCB has declared Vadodara, Ankleshwar, Vapi, Surat, Rajkot, and Vatva as “critically polluted”. Bhavnagar, Morbi, Junagadh, and Ahmedabad (Naoda-Odhav) have been declared “severely polluted” areas.
The GPCB filed an affidavit and revealed this information in response to a PIL filed by advocate Amit Panchal seeking a ban on the use of coal for industrial purpose and to make industries use CNG or PNG. The government has been constantly monitoring the ambient air quality at strategic locations under various Air Quality Monitoring Programmes to check parameters such as PM 2.5 levels.
The GPCB said that the use of coal is permitted throughout the country and in manufacturing activities in Gujarat only if industries adopt and implement Air Pollution Control Devices and measures.
The GPCB said that it prepared an action plan in 2019 and the CPCB has approved it. The plan includes measures such as controlling pollution by phasing out vehicles after 15 years of use, the installation of air pollution control devices, and ensuring emission standards in industries. There are three state-level committees to implement the measures.
Stringent norms are in place for solid fuel-based utilities to reduce particulate matter, the GPCB said.

India needs emission inventory to know results of air pollution control steps: Study – Times of India

Nagpur: India needs to develop and maintain a comprehensive inventory of baseline emissions to ascertain whether its policy and technological interventions are able to reduce air pollution, says a latest study released on Tuesday by the Council on Energy, Environment and Water (CEEW).
Having a comparative analysis of existing high-resolution inventories, the study finds that existing estimates for the country’s emissions vary by up to 37% for the pollutants considered — particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10), nitrogen oxide (NOx), sulphur dioxide (SO2) and carbon monoxide (CO).
The CEEW study considered emissions from industries, power plants, road transport, domestic sources and agricultural waste burning, which account for approximately 95% of all the criteria pollutant load emitted.
The analysis also highligts significant variations in sectoral estimates. “For instance, the contribution from the residential sector was found to vary from 27% to 50% of the total PM2.5 emissions in the country. The power sector was found to be the leading source — around 44% to 62% — of SO2 emissions. Most of the above-mentioned estimates also point to the power sector as the leading emitter of NOx,” the study states.
It further finds that Uttar Pradesh is the leading emitter of PM2.5 due to the usage of solid fuels in households. It is closely followed by other states including Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat and Odisha as the highest emitters of PM2.5, albeit with high variations.
Stating that industries and power contribute significantly to multiple pollutants, programme lead at CEEW and lead author of the study, Tanushree Ganguly, said: “Policymakers should focus on reducing emissions from these two sources on a priority basis. To meet the National Clean Air Programme (NCAP) target of 20-30% reduction in particulate concentration by 2024, we need to estimate emission reductions needed across sectors. Estimating these reductions will only be possible when we have an official, representative emission inventory for India.”
The study recommends that developing a national emissions database would require consistency in the methods and data sources that will be adopted to calculate annual increase or decrease in emissions. “Government departments need to collaborate with each other for updating the emissions estimates periodically. The Central Pollution Control Board should collaborate with National Knowledge Network (NKN) to develop a comprehensive emissions factor database, which will comprise sector- and region-specific emission factors,” it adds.
Karthik Ganesan, fellow and director – research coordination, CEEW, said: “As a start, India should create a comprehensive and consistent energy balance at a country and state-level to account for use of energy use across sectors — formal and informal. This is the main input to the process of creating the emissions database. Efficient and periodic collection of data from rural households, industry, MSMEs and other parts of our informal economy is necessary to better understand their contribution to pollution in a particular region.”
Ganeshan aslo said that scientific institutes must prioritise the creation of emissions factors that represent local conditions, technologies and maintenance practices.

What study says

– India needs to develop inventory of baseline emissions
– Existing estimates for emissions vary by 37% for pollutants
– Uttar Pradesh leading emitter of PM2.5, followed by Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat and Odisha
– Power sector leading source of pollution